Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in New York City) is a private Ivy League research university in New York City. Founded in 1754 in Trinity Church in Manhattan, Columbia University is the oldest higher education institution in New York and the fifth oldest higher education institution in the United States. It is one of the nine colonial colleges established before the establishment of the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belonged to the Ivy League. Columbia University is ranked as one of the most prestigious universities in the world by many major educational publications.
Columbia was established as the Royal Charter of King's College in response to the founding of Princeton University. After the American War of Independence, it was renamed Columbia University in 1784 and was placed under a private trusteeship committee headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay in 1787. In 1896, the campus moved to its current location in Morningside Heights and was renamed Columbia University.
Colombian scientists and scholars have played an important role in scientific breakthroughs, including: brain-computer interfaces; lasers and masers; nuclear magnetic resonance, the first nuclear reactor; the first nuclear fission reaction in the Americas; plate tectonics and continental drift The first evidence; and much preliminary research and planning of the Manhattan Project during World War II. Colombia is divided into 20 schools, including 4 undergraduate schools and 15 graduate schools. The university’s research work includes the Lamont-Dougherty Earth Observatory, the Goddard Institute for Space Research, and accelerator laboratories with major technology companies such as IBM. Columbia University is a founding member of the American Association of Universities and the first school in the United States to award a doctor of medicine. The Columbia University Library has a collection of more than 14 million volumes and is the third largest private research library in the United States.
The university’s donation of US$10.9 billion in 2019 is the largest of any academic institution. As of October 2020, Columbia University’s alumni, faculty and staff include: five founding fathers of the United States, one of the co-authors of the United States Constitution and the co-author of the Declaration of Independence; three U.S. presidents; 29 foreign countries The head of state; ten judges of the United States Supreme Court, two of which are currently in office; 96 Nobel Prize winners; five medal winners; 101 members of the American Academy of Sciences; 53 living billionaires; 11 Olympic medal winners Winners; 33 Oscar winners; 125 Pulitzer Prize winners.