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The university was founded by the Duke of Austria Rudolf IV and his two brothers Albert III and Leopold III on March 12, 1365, hence the name "Rudolf Alma Mater". After Charles University in Prague and Jagiellonian University in Krakow, the University of Vienna is the third oldest university in Central Europe and the oldest university in the contemporary German-speaking world; this is still a question of definition, because Charles University in Prague was also German speaking.
The University of Vienna is based on the University of Paris. However, Pope Urban V did not approve the foundation contract approved by Rudolf IV, especially the contract related to the theological department. This is probably due to the pressure exerted by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV, who wanted to avoid competition from Charles University in Prague. Eventually approved by the Pope in 1384, the University of Vienna was granted the status of a complete university, including the Catholic Theological Seminary. The first university building was opened in 1385. It grew to be the largest university in the Holy Roman Empire, and during the emergence of humanism in the mid-15th century, there were more than 6,000 students.
In the early years, the structure of this university was partly a hierarchical system and partly a cooperative structure. The principal was at the top, while students had almost no voice and were placed at the bottom. The four academies of the magister and doctors, and the ranks of academic officials selected from them. Students and all other Supposita (university members) are divided into four academic countries. Their elected board members, mostly graduates themselves, had the right to elect the Rector. , And a university conference attended by all university teachers. Students’ complaints or appeals to the faculty’s decisions must be filed by teachers or doctors.
This university was regarded as a papal institution and suffered considerable setbacks during the Reformation. In addition, the first siege of Vienna by the Ottoman army had a devastating effect on the city, resulting in a sharp decline in the city, with only 30 students enrolled at the lowest point. For King Ferdinand I, this meant that universities should be connected to a higher degree with the church, and the Jesuits were established there in 1551. With the promulgation of the Sanctio Pragmatica edict by Emperor Ferdinand II in 1623, the Jesuits took over the teaching of the Theology and Philosophy Department, thus making the university a stronghold of Catholicism for more than 150 years. It was not until the middle of the 18th century that Queen Maria Theresa forced the university to return to the control of the monarchy. Her successor, Joseph II, helped further reform the university, allowing Protestants and Jews to enroll, and introducing German as a compulsory language of instruction.